Outcomes

Hematology (Red Line)

Red Blood Cells (also known as Erythrocytes) are the largest cells in the blood (along with White Blood Cells and Platelets). They lack a nucleus and are made in the bone marrow. Their main function is to carry oxygen from the lungs to all the body tissues and to carry carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, to the lungs, where it is excreted.

This can be done thanks they contain Hemoglobin (an iron-rich protein that binds oxygen that gives blood its red color). The amount of oxygen that’s delivered to your body’s tissues depends on the number of Red Blood Cells you have and how well they work.

Women usually have a lower Red Blood Cells count than men, and the level of Red Blood Cells tends to decrease with age.

Graph

The graphic for Hematogoly (Red Line) shows a black dot corresponding your Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Hemoglobin ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Hemoglobin Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Hematology (White Line)

White Blood Cells (also known as Leukocytes) are the cells part of the Immune System that helps fight infection by attacking bacteria, viruses and germs that invade the body.

Different types of White Blood Cells are involved in recognizing intruders, killing harmful bacteria and creating antibodies to protect your body against future exposure to some bacteria and viruses. Types of Leukocytes are Granulocytes (Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils), Monocytes and Lymphocytes.

Specific types of cells are associated with different illnesses and reflect the special function of that cell type in body defense. From infection to cancers, White Blood Cells are involved in many functions in the body.

Hematology (Black Line)

Platelets (also known as Thrombocytes) are tiny blood cells made in your bone marrow (along with Red and White Blood Cells) that help your body form clots to stop and control bleeding.

If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it sends out signals that are picked up by platelets. The platelets then rush to the site of damage and form a plug, or clot, to repair the damage. In this way, they slow down blood loss, prevent infection and promote healing.

Coagulatory Function

The coagulatory function measures the ability of the blood to clot, that is, the time necessary to stop a hemorrhage, for example.

When body tissue(s) or blood vessel walls are injured, bleeding occurs and a process called hemostasis begins. Small cell fragments called platelets adhere to and then clump (aggregate) at the injury site. At the same time, a process called the coagulation cascade begins and coagulation factors are activated. Through the cascading reactions, threads called fibrin form and crosslink into a net that adheres to the injury site and stabilizes it. Along with the platelets adhering, this forms a stable blood clot to seal off injuries to blood vessels, prevents additional blood loss, and gives the damaged areas time to heal.

Each component of this hemostatic process must function properly and be present in sufficient quantity for normal blood clot formation. If there is a deficiency in one or more of these factors, or if the factors function abnormally, then a stable clot may not form and bleeding continues.

Graph

The graphic for Coagulatory Function shows a black dot corresponding your Prothrombin Time (PT) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Coagulatory Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Hematologic System

The hematologic system is made up of the blood, the spleen, bone marrow, and the liver. Hematology is the study of blood and all its components. This is the principal system by which nutrients, elements, and more are carried to tissues. While the respiratory system gives oxygen and takes carbon dioxide to the erythrocytes, then the erythrocytes carry blood to all tissues, and supply what they carry, and carry away wastes. If this flow is interrupted, then all tissues will begin dying.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some bones, such as the hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells ―the cells that can develop into the red blood cells (that carry oxygen through the whole body), the white blood cells (that fight infections), and the platelets (that help with blood clotting)―.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

BMI is a equation that uses weight and height to estimate body fat and, for most people, BMI provides a reasonable estimate of body fat. However, BMI’s biggest weakness is that it doesn’t consider individual factors, such as bone or muscle mass.

Plesae note, because many of the health problems are associated with the high prevalence of obesity, it is easy to forget that being underweight also carries health risks.

Graph

The graphic for Body Mass Index (BMI) shows a black dot corresponding your Weight ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Height ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your BMI according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

BMI has been calculated according to the 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults (A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. BMI classification. World Health Organization) formula.

Blood Pressure

When your heart beats, it pumps blood round your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is your blood pressure. For example, if your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your arteries (and your heart) and this may lead to heart attacks and strokes.

Your total blood pressure reading is determined by measuring your systolic and diastolic blood pressures. When your heart beats, it squeezes and pushes blood through your arteries to the rest of your body. Systolic blood pressure, the higher number, measures the force your heart exerts on the walls of your arteries each time it beats. This force creates pressure on those blood vessels, and that’s your systolic blood pressure.

Blood pressure is measured in ‘millimeters of mercury’ (mmHg) and is written as two numbers. For example, if your reading is 120/80mmHg, your blood pressure is ‘120 over 80’.

A normal systolic pressure is, according current worldwide guidelines, below 120 mmHg. A reading of 120-129 mmHg is elevated. 130-139 mmHg is stage 1 high blood pressure (also called hypertension). 140 mmHg or more is stage 2 hypertension. 180 mmHg or more is a hypertensive crisis.

Besides, diastolic blood pressure, the bottom number, measures the force your heart exerts on the walls of your arteries in between beats. This is the time when the heart fills with blood and gets oxygen.

A normal diastolic blood pressure is lower than 80 mmHg. 80-89 mmHg is stage 1 hypertension. 90 mmHg or more is stage 2 hypertension. 120 mmHg or more is a hypertensive crisis. But even if your diastolic number is lower than 80 mmHg, you can have elevated blood pressure if the systolic reading is 120-129 mmHg.

If your systolic and diastolic readings fall into two different categories, your correct blood pressure category is the higher category. For example, if your blood pressure reading is 125/85, you have stage 1 hypertension.

Finally, a blood pressure reading lower than 90 mmHg for the top number (systolic) or 60 mmHg for the bottom number (diastolic) is generally considered low blood pressure (also known as hypotension).

Graph

The graphic for Blood Pressure shows a black dot corresponding your Diastolic Pressure ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Systolic Pressure ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Blood Pressure according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Blood Pressure category has been calculated according to the 2017 American College of Cardiology – American Heart Association (ACC/AHA)/American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA)/Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC)/American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM)/American Geriatrics Society (AGS)/American Pharmacists Association (APhA)/American Society of Hypertension (ASH)/American Society for Preventive Cardiology (ASPC)/National Medical Association (NMA)/Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association (PCNA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults.

Atherogenic Indices

Triglycerides/Cholesterol HDL Index

The Triglyceride/HDL Cholesterol Index is a ratio proposed initially by Gaziano JM et al. in 1997 as an Atherogenic Index that has proven to be a highly significant independent predictor of Myocardial Infarction, even stronger than TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios.

Later, Angela Bacelar et al. reported in 2009 that Triglyceride/HDL Cholesterol Index is possible to approximately determine the presence and extent of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) by non-invasive methods.

The Triglyceride/HDL Cholesterol Index is a ratio calculated as ‘TG / HDL-c’, that is, the ratio of plasma concentration of Triglycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) and has been proposed and established as an easily obtainable Atherogenic Marker.

Graph

The graphic for Triglycerides/Cholesterol HDL Index shows a black dot corresponding your Triglycerides (TG) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Triglycerides/Cholesterol HDL Index according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

The Triglycerides/Cholesterol HDL Index has been calculated according to the ecuation stated by Gaziano JM et al. in 1997.

Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP)

The Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) is another lipid ratio established in 2001 by Dobiásová M et al.

The Atherogenic Index of Plasma is a logarithmically transformed ratio of Triglycerides (TG)/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) expressed as ‘log (TG/HDL-c)’.

AIP is considered a marker of plasma atherogenicity based on observed strong (r>.7), positive associations between AIP and cholesterol esterification rates, lipoprotein particle size, and remnant lipoproteinemia.

The Atherogenic Index of Plasma is especially useful in alerting risk where other atherogenic risk factors analyzed alone (such as Triglycerides (TG) and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c), are not significantly altered or show no changes. Besides, AIP is highly important in predicting Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) risk and for effective therapeutic monitoring.

The Atherogenic Index of Plasma has a positive association with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk. Notably, evidence indicates that AIP may be more closely associated with CVD risk than are other atherogenic indices or individual lipoproteins cholesterol concentrations alone.

Graph

The graphic for Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) shows a black dot corresponding your Triglycerides (TG) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your AIP according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

The AIP has been calculated according to the ecuation stated by Dobiásová M et al. in 2001.

Castelli Risk Index – I (CRI-I)

The Castelli Risk Index-I (CRI-I) was established in 1983 when Castelli WP et al. analysed data from the Framingham Heart Study (the long-term, ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of the city of Framingham, Massachusetts, United States) and evaluated how well summary estimates of cholesterols predict the development of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) when considered alone or in the presence of the joint information on individual levels of cholesterols.

From that study was reported that Castelli Risk Index-I is more accurate predictor of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) risk than the traditional standalone lipid parameters such as serum Total Cholesterol (TC), serum Triglycerides (TG), serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol fraction (HDL-c) and serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol fraction (LDL-c).

The Castelli Risk Index I is a ratio calculated as ‘TC/HDL-c’ that is, the ratio of plasma concentration of Total Cholesterol (TC) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c).

Together with the Castelli Risk Index-II (CRI-II), the CRI-I is currently the emerging lipid ratio.

Graph

The graphic for Castelli Risk Index – I (CRI-I) shows a black dot corresponding your Total Cholesterol (TC) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your CRI-I according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

The CRI-I has been calculated according to the ecuation stated by Castelli WP et al. in 1983.

Castelli Risk Index – II (CRI-II)

The Castelli Risk Index-II (CRI-II) was also established in 1983 ―together with Castelli Risk Index-I (CRI-I)―, by Castelli WP et al. as an independent risk index for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CRI-II uses Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol fraction (LDL-c) instead of Total Cholesterol (TC), used in CRI-I.

The reason of this second Castelli Risk Index establishment was because they concluded as taking into account both ratios the estimation of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) was much more accurate.

The Castelli Risk Index II is a ratio calculated as ‘LDL-c/HDL-c’, that is, the ratio of plasma concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c).

Graph

The graphic for Castelli Risk Index – II (CRI-II) shows a black dot corresponding your LowDensity Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your CRI-II according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

The CRI-II has been calculated according to the ecuation stated by Castelli WP et al. in 1983.

Atherogenic Coefficient (AC)

The Atherogenic Coefficient (AC) was established in 2000 by Dobiásová M et al. first, and in 2004 Brehm A et al., second.

The AC is a ratio calculated as ‘(TC – HDL-c)/HDL-c’ that is, the ratio of plasma concentration of non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (non-HDL-c) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c). Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (non-HDL-c) can be obtained both by analysing this analyte in the blood as well as subtracting Total Cholesterol (TC) minus High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c).

AC represents total sums of Cholesterol found in Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-c), Intermediate-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (IDL-c) and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) lipoprotein fractions in relation to the protective value of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c).

AC reflects atherogenic potential of the entire spectrum of lipoprotein fractions and rely on the significance of HDL-c in predicting the risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).

Graph

The graphic for Atherogenic Coefficient (AC) shows a black dot corresponding your Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (non-HDL-c) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your AC according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

The AC has been calculated according to the ecuation stated by Dobiásová M et al. in 2000.

Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels. It provides oxygen from the lungs and other nutrients to the cells that make up the body’s tissues, as well as transport the waste and carbon dioxide that they produce until they are expelled from the body with urine.

Blood circulates through the cardiovascular system and is formed by red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, water, oxygen, salts, proteins, among other compound, as well all everything necessary to nourish the body’s cells.

The central organ that is the heart. It is one of the most important organs of the human body, since it is the one that pumps blood throughout the body for its correct performance.

Also possess a closed network of vessels. These blood vessels are of three types: arteries, veins and capillaries. By distributing hormones and nutrients to the cells and tissues of the body; and by transporting waste products from the metabolism to the excretory organs and transporting in the blood defensive systems (leukocytes and antibodies) generated by the immune system, as well as acids and bases for keep the pH balanced. All of this overlaps the body and functions as a unit for optimal functioning and survival.

In this way, if both heart or blood vessels suffer any disfunction, such as Hypertension (HT), Atherosclerosis ―in the way of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) or Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), both close related with serum sterols and fatty acids such as Total Cholesterol (TC), High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c), Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c), Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-c) and Triglycerides (TG)―, Cerebrovascular Disease (also known as Stroke), Heart Failure (HF), Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) or Cardiomyopathies, among others, the whole body can be seen altering.

All above disorders or disfunctions are called, as group of disorders of heart and blood vessels, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) and are the leading cause of death in the world: more people die annually from Cardiovascular Diseases than from any other cause. Specifically, 17.9 million people die each year from Cardiovascular Diseases, an estimated 31% of all deaths worldwide and four out of five Cardiovascular Diseases deaths are due to Heart Attacks and Strokes. These are projected to remain the single leading causes of death, mainly because by 2030, almost 23.6 million people will die from Cardiovascular Diseases.

Hydroelectrolytic Metabolism

Liquids and electrolytes are found in the body in a state of dynamic equilibrium that requires a stable composition of the various elements that are essential to preserve life. The human body is constituted by water in 50% to 70% of the body weight, in two compartments: Intracellular, distributed in 50% and extracellular, in 20%. Extracellular is subdivided, remaining in the interstitial space 15% and 5% in the intravascular space in the form of plasma.

As for the electrolytes, are in both compartments, but mainly in the extracellular: Sodium, Calcium and Chlorine. The intracellular ones: Potassium, Magnesium, Phosphate and Sulfate.

Electrolytes have an electrical charge and are classified into anions (charge +) and cation (charge -) when they are ionized (attract their charges + and – combined to form neutral compounds) or dissociate (they separate recovering their electrical charge) are called ions. The balance of fluids is regulated through the kidneys, lungs, skin, adrenal glands, pituitary gland and gastrointestinal tract through the gains and losses of water that originate daily. The kidney also intervenes in the acid-base balance, regulating the plasma concentration of bicarbonate.

In this way, some of these previous stated anions and cations are computed together in the Anion Gap (AG) equation, that is defined as the sum of serum Chloride (Cl-) and Bicarbonate (HNO-3) concentrations subtracted from the serum Sodium (Na+) concentration.

This entity is wide-used in the detection and analysis of Acid-Base Disorders, assessment of quality control in the chemical laboratory, and detection of such disorders as Multiple Myeloma, Bromide Intoxication, and Lithium Intoxication.

Graph

The graphic for Anion Gap (AG) shows a black dot corresponding your Sodium (Na+) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and total sums of Chloride (Cl-) and Bicarbonate (HNO-3) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Anion Gap according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Glucose Metabolism

Glucose, also called dextrose, is one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides). Is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. It is the source of energy in cell function and the regulation of its metabolism is of great importance. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose and then transports it to the cells via the bloodstream.

When we eat, our body immediately starts working to process glucose. Enzymes start the breakdown process with help from the pancreas. The pancreas, which produces hormones including insulin, is an integral part of how our body deals with glucose. When we eat, our body tips the pancreas off that it needs to release insulin to deal with the rising blood sugar level.

If the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, it can result in the release of free fatty acids from fat stores. This can lead to a condition called ketoacidosis. Ketones, waste products created when the liver breaks down fat, can be toxic in large quantities.

Other causes that may alter your level of glucose are: Too few carbohydrates at meals, skipping meals, eating too much, strenuous physical activity or lack of it, excessive consumption of alcohol, stress or taking certain medicines (such as steroid medication).

Graph

The graphic for Glucose Metabolism Function shows a black dot corresponding your levels of Glucose ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Glycated Hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Glucose Metabolism Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Uric Acid Metabolism

Uric Acid is one of waste products send away by our bodies as result of constant motion, even when we are sleeping (blood flows, brain fires away, and gut digests late-night snack). Whenever we eat something, our bodies pull out the good stuff, such as proteins and vitamins, and sends away the waste.

The amount of Uric Acid in the body depends on the balance between the amount of urate synthesised within the body (when cells die and get taken apart), the amount of Uric Acid that leaves our bodies (both excreted in urine or through the gastrointestinal track); and the amount of purines eaten in food. Purines are a type of chemical compound found in foods and drinks that are part of a normal diet. Essentially, are the building blocks of all living things and they decompose in the body to form Uric Acid.

Graph

The graphic for Acid Uric Metabolism shows a black dot corresponding your Blood Pressure ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Acid Uric ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Acid Uric Metabolism according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Thyroid Function

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that is normally located in the lower front of the neck. The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormones, called triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which are secreted into the blood and then carried to every tissue in the body. Thyroid hormone helps the body use energy, stay warm and keep the brain, heart, muscles and other organs working as they should. Basically, thyroid helps regulate the body’s metabolism (the process that turns food into energy). Many of the body’s functions slow down when the thyroid doesn’t produce enough of these hormones.

Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism.

Cancer of the thyroid gland is quite rare and occurs in about 5% of thyroid nodules. You might have one or more thyroid nodules for several years before they are determined to be cancerous. People who have received radiation treatment to the head and neck earlier in life, possibly as a remedy for acne, tend to have a higher-than-normal risk of developing thyroid cancer.

Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.

Graph

The graphic for Thyroid Function shows a black dot corresponding your Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Thyroid T4 Free Hormone (T4 Free) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Thyroid Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Parathyroid Function

The parathyroid glands are four tiny glands, located in the neck, that control the body’s calcium levels. Each gland is about the size of a grain of rice (weighs approximately 30 milligrams and is 3-4 millimeters in diameter). They produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH raises the blood calcium level by: breaking down the bone (where most of the body’s calcium is stored) and causing calcium release, increasing the body’s ability to absorb calcium from food and increasing the kidney’s ability to hold on to calcium that would otherwise be lost in the urine.

Normal parathyroid glands work like the thermostat at home to keep blood calcium levels in a very tightly controlled range. When the blood calcium level is too low, PTH is released to bring the calcium level back up to normal. When the calcium level is normal or gets a little too high, normal parathyroids will stop releasing PTH. Proper calcium balance is crucial to the normal functioning of the heart, nervous system, kidneys and bones.

Calcium is the element that allows the normal conduction of electrical currents along nerves. The entire brain works by fluxes of calcium into and out of the nerve cells. Calcium is also the primary element which causes muscles to contract. Therefore, parathyroid disease causes symptoms of the brain, muscles and bones.

A sudden drop in the calcium level (like after a successful parathyroid operation where the patient doesn’t take their calcium pills for the first few days after the surgery) can cause patients to feel dazed and confused, like the brain isn’t working correctly. The brain demands a normal steady-state calcium level, so any change in the amount of calcium can cause the patient to feel bad.

Likewise, too much parathyroid hormone causes too high a calcium level and this can make a person feel run down, more irritable than usual, sleep poorly and even cause a decrease in memory.

Graph

The graphic for Parathyroid Function shows a black dot corresponding your Albumin-Corrected Calcium ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Intact Parathyroid Hormone (PTHi) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Parathyroid Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Vitamin D Function

Vitamin D is a family of compounds that is essential for the proper growth and formation of teeth and bones. This test measures the level of vitamin D in the blood.

Vitamin D comes from two sources: endogenous, which is produced in the skin on exposure to sunlight, and exogenous, which is ingested in foods and supplements. The chemical structures of the types of vitamin D are slightly different, and they are named vitamin D (ergocalciferol, which comes from plants) and vitamin D (cholecalciferol, which comes from animals). The D form is found in fortified foods and in most vitamin preparations and supplements. Vitamin D is the form produced in the body and is also used in some supplements. Vitamin D and D are equally effective when they are converted by the liver and the kidney into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

The main role of vitamin D is to help regulate blood levels of calcium, phosphorus, and (to a lesser extent) magnesium. Vitamin D is vital for the growth and health of bone; without it, bones will be soft, malformed, and unable to repair themselves normally, resulting in diseases called rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D has also been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many other tissues and to help regulate the immune system. These other functions have implicated vitamin D in other disorders, such as autoimmunity and cancer.

Based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that two-thirds of U.S. population has sufficient vitamin D, while roughly one-quarter are at risk of inadequate vitamin D (Insufficiency) and 8% are at risk of Deficiency, as defined by the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) set by the Institute of Medicine.

People at higher risk of deficiency include the elderly or obese people, people who don’t get enough sun exposure, people with darker skin, and people who take certain medications for long periods of time.

Adequate sun exposure is typically estimated to be two periods per week of 5-20 minutes. People who do not have adequate sun exposure may obtain the vitamin D that they need from food sources or supplements.

Graph

The graphic for Vitamin D Function shows a black dot corresponding your Albumin-Corrected Calcium ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Vitamin D 25-OH ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Vitamin D Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

Liver Function

The liver’s main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. Detoxifies chemicals, metabolizes drugs and secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. Basically, the liver is essential for digesting food and ridding the body of toxic substances.

This organ is vital to the body’s metabolic functions and immune system. These include: breaking down or converting substances, extracting energy and making toxins less harmful to the body and removing them from the bloodstream. The liver also plays major roles creating immune system factors that can fight against infection, creating proteins responsible for blood clotting, breaking down old and damaged red blood cells and storing extra blood sugar as glycogen.

The liver stores vitamins as well as minerals such as copper and iron, releasing them if the body needs them. The liver also helps to break down fats in a person’s diet. It either stores fats or releases them as energy.

Renal Function

Kidneys filter waste and extra water from the body, cleaning the blood, along with regulating blood pressure and producing hormones. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. Damage, often from diabetes and/or hypertension, can result in kidney failure, dialysis and the need for a transplant.

The kidneys perform many crucial functions, including: Maintaining overall fluid balance, regulating and filtering minerals from blood, filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances, creating hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health and regulate blood pressure.

Graph

The graphic for Renal Function shows a black dot corresponding your Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (ACR) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Renal Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).

GFR has been calculated from Gender, Race, Age and serum Creatinine according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) algorithm as recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF). It is more accurate than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation, particularly in people with higher levels of GFR.

Besides, ACR has been calculated by dividing Albumin concentration by Creatinine concentration.

Please note ACR is the first method of preference to detect elevated amounts of urine Protein (a routine dipstick is not sensitive enough to detect small amounts of urine Protein).

The recommended method to evaluate albuminuria (the increased excretion of urinary Albumin and a marker of Kidney Damage), is to measure urinary ACR in a spot urine sample.

Although the 24-hour collection has been the gold standard, alternative methods for detecting protein excretion such as urinary ACR correct for variations in urinary concentration due to hydration as well as provide more convenience than timed urine collections. The spot specimen correlates well with 24-hour collections in adults.

Both GFR and ACR are included in Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Guidelines.

Prostate Function

The prostate gland is a male reproductive organ walnut-sized whose main function is to secrete prostate fluid, one of the components of semen. This fluid keeps sperm alive while protecting them and the genetic code they carry.

The fluid in the prostate contains large amounts of a substance known as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which liquefies the gelatinous sperm mixture, allowing the sperm to move freely in search of an ovum to fertilize. The prostate contracts during ejaculation and squirts its fluid into the urethra, closing off the opening between the bladder and urethra and pushing semen through at speed. The muscles of the prostate gland also help propel this seminal fluid into the urethra during ejaculation.

It also acts as a filter (removing any toxins), creates erections (triggering extra blood to the penis to help it swell), protects against urinary tract infections, controls urine flow and produces hormones (DHT).

Graph

The graphic for Prostate Function shows a black dot corresponding your Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) ―plotted on the X-Axis― and Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (fPSA) ―plotted on the Y-Axis―, over a colored background.

The background is colored according what these levels mean once putted together in order you can figure in an easy way how is your Prostate Function according current worldwide guidelines, that is, by using a colored scale based on a risk stratification from green (Risk 0) to dark red (Risk 4).