Reference Intervals

Last update: June 27th, 2019.

What are Reference Intervals?

 
 

 
 

Bibliographic references

 

Scientific publications

  1. Adeli K. Closing the gaps in pediatric reference intervals: the CALIPER initiative. Clin Biochem 2011;44:480-2.
  2. Amador, E., Health and normality. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 232,953 (1975).
  3. Amador, E., Normal ranges. Prog. Clin. Pat hol. 5,59 (1974).
  4. Barnoon, S., and Wolfe, H., Measuring the Effectiveness of Medical Decisions. C. C Thomas, Springfield, III., 1972, p 229.
  5. Beeler, M. F., Establishing normal values. Postgrad. Med. 43(4), 67 (1968).
  6. Benson, E. S., The concept of the normal range. Hum. Pathol. 3, 152 (1972).
  7. Bock BJ, Dolan CT, Miller GC, et al. The data warehouse as a foundation for population-based reference intervals. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;120:662-670.
  8. Büttner, H., Influence of quality control on reference values. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 29 (Suppl. 126), 19.5 (1972).
  9. Ceriotti F. Prerequisites for use of common reference intervals. Clin Biochem Rev. 2007;28:115-121.
  10. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Defining, Establishing, and Verifying Reference Intervals in the Clinical Laboratory; Approved Guideline. Third Edition. CLSI document C28-A3. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2008.
  11. Concordet D, Geffré A, Braun JP, Trumel C. A new approach for the determination of reference intervals from hospitalbased data. Clin Chim Acta 2009;405:43-8.
  12. Dybkaer R, Solberg HE. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Approved recommendation on the theory of reference values. Part 6. Presentation of observed values related to reference values. Clin Chim Acta 1987;170:S33-S42.
  13. Dybkaer, R., and GrSsbeck, R., Theory of reference values. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 32, 1 (1973).
  14. Dybkaer, R., Concepts and nomenclature in theory of reference values. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 29 (Suppl. 126), 19.1 (1972).
  15. Elvebach, L. R., Guillier, C. L., and Keating, F. R., Jr., Health, normality and the ghost of Gauss. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 211, 69 (1970).
  16. Estey MP, Cohen AH , Colantonio DA, Chan MK , Marvasti TB, Randell E, et al. CLSI-based transference of the CALIPER database of pediatric reference intervals from Abbott to Beckman, Ortho, Roche and Siemens Clinical Chemistry Assays: Direct validation using reference samples from the CALIPER cohort. Clin Biochem 2013:1197-219.
  17. Fagan, T. J., Nomogram for Bayes’ theorem. New EngI. J. Med. 293, 257 (1975).
  18. Flynn, F. V., Effect of age and sex on the normal range. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 6, 1(1969).
  19. Gindler, E. M., Calculation of normal ranges by methods used for resolution of overlapping gaussian distributions. Clin. Chem. 16, 124 (1970).
  20. Grasbeck, R., and Saris, N. E., Establishment and use of normal values. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 24, (Suppl. 110), 62 (1969).
  21. Gräsbeck, R., Types of reference groups. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 29 (Suppl. 126), 19.2 (1972).
  22. Grossi E, Colombo R, Cavuta S, Franzini C. The RELAB Project: a new method for the formulation of reference intervals based on current data. Clin Chem 2005;51:1232-40.
  23. Hall, 0. H., The clinical application of Bayes’ theorem. Lancet ii, 555 (1967).
  24. Harris EK, Boyd JC. On dividing reference data into subgroups to produce separate reference ranges. Clin Chem 1990;36:265-70.
  25. Harris, E. K., Some theory of reference values. I. Stratified (categorized) normal ranges and a method for following an individual’s clinical laboratory values. Clin. Chem. 21, 1457 (1975).
  26. Henny J, Petitclerc C, Fuentes-Arderiu X, Petersen PH, Queralto JM, Schiele F, et al. Need for revisiting the concept of reference values. Clin Chem Lab Med 2000;38:589-95.
  27. Hoffmann RG. Statistics in the practice of medicine. JAMA. 1963;185:864-873.
  28. Huber KR, Mostafaie N, Stangl G, Worofka B, Kittl E, Hofmann J, et al. Clinical chemistry reference values for 75-year-old apparently healthy persons. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44:1355-60.
  29. Ichihara K, Ceriotti F, Kazuo M, Huang YY, Shimizu Y, Suzuki H, et al. Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits, International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, and the Science Committee for the Asia Pacific Federation of Clinical Biochemistry. The Asian project for collaborative derivation of reference intervals: (2) results of non-standardized analytes and transference of reference intervals to the participating laboratories on the basis of cross-comparison of test results. Clin Chem Lab Med 2013;51:1443-57.
  30. Ichihara K, Ceriotti F, Tam TH, Sueyoshi S, Poon PM, Thong ML, et al. Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits, International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, and the Science Committee for the Asia Pacific Federation of Clinical Biochemistry. The Asian project for collaborative derivation of reference intervals: (1) strategy and major results of standardized analytes. Clin Chem Lab Med 2013;51:1429-42.
  31. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 15189:2012 Medical laboratories — Requirements for quality and competence, Third edition, 2012.
  32. Jones G, Barker A. Reference Intervals. Clin Biochem Rev 2008;29:S93-7
  33. Jones GR, Barker A, Tate J, et al. The case of common reference intervals. Clin Biochem Rev. 2004;25:99-104.
  34. Jones GRD. Validating common reference intervals in routine laboratories. Clin Chim Acta 2014;432:119-21.
  35. Katayev, A., Balciza, C., & Seccombe, D. W. (2010). Establishing Reference Intervals for Clinical Laboratory Test Results. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 133(2), 180–186.
  36. King, C. D., The meaning of normal. Yale ,J. Biol. Med. 17,493 (1944-45).
  37. Kouri T, Kairisto V, Virtanen A, et al. Reference intervals developed from data for hospitalized patients: computerized method based on combination of laboratory and diagnostic data. Clin Chem. 1994;40:2209-2215.
  38. Krause, R. D., Anand, V. D., Gruemer, H-D., and Willke, T. A., The impact of laboratory error on the normal range: A Bayesian model. Clin. Chem. 21, 321 (1975).
  39. Lahti A, Hyltoft Peterson P, Boyd JC, Rustat P, Laake P, Solberg HE. Partitioning of nongaussian distributed biochemical reference data into subgroups. Clin Chem 2004;50:891-900.
  40. Lahti A, Hyltoft Peterson P, Boyd JC. Impact of subgroup prevalances on partitioning Gaussian distributed reference values. Clin Chem 2002;48:1987-99.
  41. Lusted, L. B., Introduction to Medical Decision Making, C. C Thomas, Springfield, III., 1968, p 271.
  42. Mainland, D., Remarks on clinical “norms.” Clin. Chem. 17, 267 (1971).
  43. Martensson A. Reference intervals for haematology analytes: preliminary results from the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP). Klinisk Biokemi I Norden. 2003;2:20-21.
  44. Martin, H. F., Gudzinowicz, B. J., and Fanger, H., Normal Values in Clinical Chemistry: A Guide to Statistical Analysis of Laboratory Data, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, N. Y., 1975, p 504.
  45. McCammon, R. W., The concept of normality. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 134,559 (1966).
  46. Murphy, E. A., The normal, and the perils of the sylleptic argument. Perspect. Biol. Med. 15, 566 (1971-72).
  47. O’Halloran, M. W., Studley-Ruxton, J., and Wellby, M. L., A comparison of conventionally derived normal ranges with those obtained from patients’ results. Clin. Chim. Acta 27, 35 (1970).
  48. Petit Clerc C, Solberg HE. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Approved recommendation on the theory of reference values. Part 2. Selection of individual for the production of reference value. Clin Chim Acta 1987;170:S1 S12
  49. Ratto, L. A., and Yantorno, C., Criterias de normalidad. 1. Limites de los valores normales. Sangre 19, 217 (1974).
  50. Reed, A. H., and Wu, G. T., Evaluation of a transformation method for estimation of normal range. Clin. Chem. 20, 576 (1974).
  51. Reed, A. H., Henry, R. J., and Mason, W. B., Influence of statistical method used on the resulting estimate of normal range. Clin. Chem. 17, 275 (1971).
  52. Rustad P, Felding P, Franzson L, et al. The Nordic Reference Interval Project 2000: recommended reference intervals for 25 common biochemical properties. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64:271-284.
  53. Siest G, Henny J, Gräsbeck R, Wilding P, Petitclerc C, Josep M, et al. The theory of reference values: an unfinished symphony. Clin Chem Lab Med 2013;51:47-64.
  54. Siest, G., Reference values in human chemistry. Clin. Chem. 21,925 (1975).
  55. Simonson, E., The concept and definition of normality. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 134, 541 (1966).
  56. Solberg HE, Petit Clerc C. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Approved recommendation on the theory of reference values. Part 3. Preparation of individuals and collection of the specimens for the production of reference values. Clin Chim Acta 1988;177:S3-S11.
  57. Solberg HE, Stamm D. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Approved recommendation on the theory of reference values. Part 4. Control of analytical variation in the production, transfer and application of reference values. Clin Chim Acta 1991;202:S5-S11.
  58. Solberg HE. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Approved recommendation on the theory of reference values. Part 5. Statistical treatment of collected reference values. Clin Chim Acta 1987;170:S13-S32.
  59. Solberg HE. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Scientific committee, Clinical Section. Expert Panel on Theory of Reference Values and International Committee for Standardization in Haematology Standing Committee on Reference Values. Approved recommendation (1986) on the theory of reference values. Part 1. The concept of reference values. Clin Chim Acta 1987;165:111-8.
  60. Sunderman, F. W., and Boerner, F., Normal Values in Clinical Medicine, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 1950, p 845.
  61. Taylor, W. F., Reference intervals, non-parametric methods. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 29 (Suppl. 126), 19.12 (1972).
  62. Werner, M., The concept of normal values. In Laboratory Medicine, 3, G. J. Race, Ed. Harper and Row, New York, 1972, chapter 5B.
  63. Yantorno, C. E., and Ratto, L. A., Criterios de normalidad. II. Limites entre normalidad y patologia. Sangre 19,221(1974).
  64. Zender, R., Valeurs normales ou valeurs frequentes. Ann. Biol. Clin. 28, 15 (1970).